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    Precise and usable requirements through an interactive model-based approach.

    机译:通过基于模型的交互式方法获得精确和可用的需求。

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    摘要

    Billions of dollars are lost annually due to software errors and many of these errors can be traced back to unclear or unspecified software requirements. One major challenge in specifying requirements is understanding the problem space, which can rarely be achieved without collaboration among various types of stakeholders such as domain experts, end users, managers, and developers, etc. Poor stakeholder collaboration in requirements engineering could have disastrous consequences as misunderstandings and conflicts can propagate from the requirements into the final product.;Stakeholders collaborate in an iterative process of overlapping activities that includes eliciting requirements, specifying the requirements (iterative drafts of the specification), analyzing and validating the requirements (including analyzing and validating existing and proposed business processes), and negotiating the requirements. Collaboration among different stakeholders is complex for a variety of reasons including language and expertise barriers as well as tension between different stakeholders' goals, needs, and interests in a software system. We believe that the choice of RE specification technique plays a key role in establishing mutual understanding among stakeholders because it serves as the artifact used to specify elicited requirements and validate them as well as the source and target of negotiation. More specifically, we hypothesize that a RE approach that provides both precision and usability is key for collaborative RE, i.e., establishing mutual understanding among stakeholders by enabling and contributing to better understanding, communication, and manipulation of requirements.;Narrative requirements, such as use cases and scenarios, are often used in requirements engineering because different kinds of stakeholders can relate to them. Previous work has also explored relationships among narrative requirements and property-based requirements such as goals and non-functional requirements and successfully derived goal models from scenarios. Narrative requirements can serve as an effective foundation for collaborative requirements activities as well as for other types of requirements specification. Precision is achieved by restricting the expression of narrative requirements to a defined language and usability is provided by a tool that alleviates some of the burdens of a precise language through visualization and interaction mechanisms. We implement and explore these solutions in Preusa, a semi-formal language for expressing narrative requirements and iMuse -- Integrated Model-based Use-case and Storytelling Environment, an environment to be used by different types of stakeholders for visual construction, modification, and interactive exploration of requirements expressed in Preusa. The contributions of this work include: (1) We address one of the unresolved and essential problems in RE -- stakeholder collaboration -- through a specification technique that provides precision and usability. (2) We make several advances in terms of a RE language and a tool to express, edit, and view narrative requirements. (3) We have validated the approach using several groups of technical and nontechnical stakeholders including professional Software Developers and Physicians. (4) We have gained several interesting insights regarding tradeoffs and other design decisions with respect to precision and usability of the language and visualization and interaction mechanisms. (5) We have gained several interesting and novel perspectives on collaborative requirements engineering, particularly with respect to requirements creation and understanding.
    机译:由于软件错误,每年损失数十亿美元,其中许多错误可以追溯到不清楚或未指定的软件要求。指定需求的主要挑战是了解问题空间,而如果没有各种类型的利益相关者(例如领域专家,最终用户,经理和开发人员等)之间的协作,则几乎不可能实现问题空间。误解和冲突可能从需求传播到最终产品。利益相关者在重叠活动的迭代过程中进行协作,包括提出需求,指定需求(规范的迭代草案),分析和验证需求(包括分析和验证现有的)和建议的业务流程),并协商要求。由于各种原因,不同利益相关者之间的协作非常复杂,包括语言和专业知识的障碍,以及不同利益相关者的目标,需求和软件系统利益之间的紧张关系。我们认为,RE规范技术的选择在建立利益相关者之间的相互理解中起着关键作用,因为它充当了用于指定引发的需求并验证它们以及协商的来源和目标的人工工具。更具体地说,我们假设提供精确性和可用性的RE方法对于协作式RE是至关重要的,即通过启用并促进对需求的更好理解,沟通和操纵来在利益相关者之间建立相互理解。案例和场景通常用于需求工程中,因为不同类型的涉众可以与它们相关。先前的工作还探索了叙述需求和基于属性的需求(例如目标和非功能需求)之间的关系,并成功地从场景中得出了目标模型。叙述需求可以作为协作需求活动以及其他类型需求规范的有效基础。通过将叙事要求的表达限制为定义的语言来实现精确性,并且该工具提供了可用性,该工具通过可视化和交互机制减轻了精确语言的某些负担。我们在Preusa(一种用于表达叙事要求的半正式语言)和iMuse(基于模型的集成用例和讲故事环境)中实施和探索这些解决方案,该环境可供不同类型的涉众用于视觉构造,修改和交互探索普鲁萨表示的要求。这项工作的贡献包括:(1)我们通过提供精确度和可用性的规范技术解决了RE中未解决的基本问题之一-利益相关者的协作。 (2)我们在RE语言和表达,编辑和查看叙事要求的工具方面取得了一些进步。 (3)我们已经使用包括专业软件开发人员和医师在内的几组技术和非技术利益相关者对这种方法进行了验证。 (4)在语言的精度和可用性以及可视化和交互机制方面,我们已经取得了一些有关折衷和其他设计决策的有趣见解。 (5)在协作需求工程方面,尤其是在需求创建和理解方面,我们获得了一些有趣而新颖的观点。

    著录项

    • 作者

      Winbladh, Kristina.;

    • 作者单位

      University of California, Irvine.;

    • 授予单位 University of California, Irvine.;
    • 学科 Computer Science.
    • 学位 Ph.D.
    • 年度 2010
    • 页码 287 p.
    • 总页数 287
    • 原文格式 PDF
    • 正文语种 eng
    • 中图分类 ;
    • 原文服务方 国家工程技术数字图书馆
    • 关键词

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